Skip to content

What Is OOP (Object Oriented Programming)?

What is OOP? 

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is defined as a basic programming paradigm that almost every developer has utilised at some point in their career. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is known as the most common programming paradigm. It is also taught as a conventional method to write for the most part of a programmer’s school career. Today, we’ll go through the fundamentals of some of oop’s programming language along with a general idea of what exactly object oriented programming is so you can start using it in your own projects and interviews.

What is (Object Oriented Programming)?

This is an illustration of Object Oriented Programming (oop) that uses classes and objects. Programming oop is a task that can be utilised to break down a software programme into reusable code blueprints (called classes) that may be used to generate specific instances of things. The Object-oriented programming languages can be JavaScript, C++, Java, and Python, to name a few. Object Oriented Programming Classes can be utilised to also have functions known as a method or an alternative that can be exclusively available to the objects of a particular class. These functions can be specified within the class and can be used to execute an action that is a profit to that particular object type. Individual objects in Object Oriented Programming are created by the use of a class template as a blueprint. These are concrete instances that a class is abstract, such as myCar and myDog. The attributes defined in a class can have unique values for each of the objects. Assume we developed a class of Object Oriented Programming called car that has all of the attributes that a car must have, such as colour, brand, and the model and to represent my unique automobile, we construct an instance of a Car type object called myCar. The value of the attributes defined in the class to describe my automobile may then be changed without impacting other objects or the class template. This class may then be used to represent any number of vehicles.

Benefits of Object Oriented Programming OOP

  • Complex things are modelled as repeatable, basic structures in Object Oriented Programming.
  • OOP objects are reusable and may be utilised in several programmes.
  • Polymorphism allows for class-specific behaviour.
  • Classes are easier to debug since they frequently include all the relevant information.
  • Encapsulation secures and safeguards information.

How to structure Object Oriented Programming programs?

Let’s pick a real-world situation and create an Object Oriented Programming software application from scratch. Consider running a dog-sitting camp with hundreds of pets and having to keep track of each pet’s name, age, and days of attendance. How would you go about creating reusable, one of the most basic software to simulate the dogs? Now taking this real- world situation into account and writing distinct code for each dog would be inefficient with hundreds of dogs. With the items Rufus and Fluffy, we can see what that could look like. what is oop As you can see, there is a lot of code that is duplicated across the two instances. Each object has the age() method. We may use objects and classes instead since we want the same information for each dog. It is shorter and easier to maintain when similar information is grouped together to build a class structure. The figure below shows how programme of how an Object Oriented Programming language is created by first combining the same type of data and behaviours into a simple template and then adding subgroups for specific data and activity. The Dog class is a generic template that only contains data and behaviours that are common to all the dogs. Then we make two Dog subclasses: HerdingDog and TrackingDog. These have Dog’s inherited behaviours (bark()), as well as a behaviour exclusive to that kind of dog. Finally, we make objects of the HerdingDog type to represent Fluffy and Maisel as individuals. We may also make things like Rufus that fall within the Dog category but not the HerdingDog or TrackingDog categories. what is oop

Object Oriented Programming Of The building blocks

Following that, we’ll delve further into each of the essential building elements of an object oriented programme mentioned , that are:
  1. Classes
  2. Objects
  3. Methods
  4. Attributes

Classes In OOP

In a nutshell, a class is known as the data type that is specified by the user. We build a blueprint for the organisation of methods and properties in classes. This blueprint is used to generate or instantiate individual objects. Fields for characteristics and methods for behaviours are found in classes. Name and birthdate are properties in our Dog class, whereas bark() and updateAttendance are methods (). Here’s a sample of code that shows you how to programme a Dog class in JavaScript. what is oop

Objects In OOP

An Object is, of course, part of the Object Oriented Programming. The objects of an object oriented programming language are instances of classes generated with specific data, such as Rufus, who is an instance of the Dog class in the code snippet below. what is oop
When the new Dog class is introduced:
  • Rufus is a new item generated.
  • Name and birthdate parameters are processed through the function Object() { [native code] }, and values are then assigned.

Attributes

This is basically the saved information also known as attributes. Class template defines the attributes and individual objects have data saved in the Attributes field when they are instantiated. The data in the attributes fields of an object is responsible for the state of objects. At pet camp, for example, a puppy and a dog may be handled differently. The birthdate of objects might define its condition, allowing software to manage all the dogs of various ages differently.

Methods

Behaviors are represented through methods. Methods execute activities, such as returning information about an object or updating the contents of an object. The code for the method is specified in the class specification. Individual objects can invoke the methods defined in a class when they are instantiated. The bark method is defined in the Dog class, and the bark() function is called on the Rufus object in the code sample below. what is oop This is often modified, updated, or deleted via methods and methods, on the other hand, are not required to update data. The bark() function, for example, does not update any of the data because barking does not change any of the Dog class’s properties, such as name or birthday. The updateAttendance() function adds a day to the Dog’s pet sitting camp attendance. For invoicing Owners at the end of the month, the attendance characteristic is a critical thing to be kept in track. Methods are how programmers maintain functionality contained within an object and encourage reusability. When troubleshooting, its reusability comes in handy and if a mistake occurs, there is just one location to look for it and repair it rather than numerous. The underscore in _attendance indicates that the variable is protected and should not be directly changed. To update _attendance, use the updateAttendance() function. what is oop

Object-oriented programming is built in the four pillars:

  • Child classes inherit data and behaviour from their parent classes.
  • Encapsulation is a process of enclosing information in an object and exposing just a subset of it. Only exposing high-level public methods for accessing an object is abstraction.
  • The concept of polymorphism entails the use of the several techniques used to accomplish the same goal.

Inheritance

A Class can inherit features from other class thanks to inheritance and reusability is aided through inheritance. Parent class, in other words, extend traits and behaviours to the child class. If a parent class defines fundamental characteristics and behaviours, child classes may be developed to expand the functionality of the parent class and add new properties and behaviours. Herding dogs, for example, have a one-of-a-kind capacity to herd animals. To put it another way, all herders are dogs, but not all dogs are herders. We illustrate this distinction by establishing a HerdingDog child class from the parent Dog class, and then adding the unique herd() function to it. Inheritance has the advantage of allowing programmes to construct a general parent class and then more specialised child classes as needed. This simplifies overall development because, rather than replicating the Dog class’s structure multiple times, child classes receive instant access to their parent class’s functions. In the sample below, the child class HerdingDog inherits the method bark from the parent class Dog and adds a new method, herd, to the child class (). what is oop The bark() function is not duplicated in the HerdingDog class; instead, it inherits the bark() method from the parent Dog type. When fluffy is called by its code. To locate where the bark method is declared, the bark() method goes up the chain of child to parent classes. what is oop

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is defined as the process of enclosing all relevant information within an object and only revealing a subset of it to the outside world. Code within the class template defines attributes and behaviours. The data and methods of the process are then contained in the object when it is created from the class. Inside a class, encapsulation hides the internal software code implementation and the internal data of an object. what is oop The computation details for the getAge() function in our sample code are buried inside the Dog class and Rufus’ age is calculated using the getAge() function on the rufus object.

Abstraction

Abstraction is the interaction of a user with only a subset of an object, its attributes and operations. To access a complicated item, abstraction use simpler and high-level techniques. Simple objects are used to depict complexity and abstraction uses simple classes to describe complexity, allowing complicated features to be hidden from the user. Encapsulation is the diversification of abstraction. To operate a car, for example, you don’t need to understand every detail of how the engine works. Abstraction also has a significant type of security benefit. We safeguard the data by only presenting chosen pieces of the data and only enabling the data to be accessible through classes and updated using methods. To continue with the automobile analogy, you wouldn’t want to drive a car with an open gas tank. The following are some of the advantages of abstraction:
  1. User interfaces with a high level of simplicity.
  2. The code is complex and secret.
  3. Security
  4. Software maintenance is a lot easier now.
  5. Updates to the code seldom affect the abstraction.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism is the creation of things that have same type of characteristics The objects can also override shared parent behaviours with particular child behaviours via inheritance. Method overriding and method overloading are two ways that polymorphism allows the same method to perform multiple actions.

Polymorphism has the following advantages:

  • Different sorts of objects can be passed over the same interface.
  • Method overloading and overriding

Conclusion

Object-oriented programming language necessitates planning and thinking about the program’s structure before beginning to code and examining how to decompose the requirements into basic, reusable classes that may be utilized to create object instances. Overall, use of OOP provides for more reusable data structures and saves time in the long run. No wonder, programming oop is a hugely popular paradigm currently into existence.
If you want to learn more about OOP, Educative offers courses for the following programming languages:
  • Java
  • JavaScript
  • Python
  • C++
  • C#
This is a text-based course and has use in-browser coding environments to help you learn about object oriented programming languages more quickly and effectively. There’s no need to set anything up; simply log in and start coding.
nv-author-image

Vaibhav Kapoor

A professional web entrepreneur, WordPress developer and digital marketing strategist with more than 4 years of experience in building a business from scratch. Knowledgeable about SEO, blogging, internet marketing, social media and website development.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

[wpfepp_submission_form form="1"]