# Introduction

## What Is Rabin Karp Algorithm?

The Rabin Karp algorithm is a powerful string matching algorithm that is designed to search for patterns in larger text. This algorithm works by hashing the pattern and then comparing the hash values of the pattern with each substring of the text. It is commonly used in various applications, including plagiarism detection and bioinformatics. The Rabin Karp algorithm can help identify similarities between texts that may not be immediately apparent. In plagiarism detection, it can quickly scan large documents for instances of copied content. The algorithm has a time complexity of O(n – m + 1), where n is the length of the text and m is the length of the pattern.

## The Importance of String Matching

String matching plays a critical role in computer science domains such as data compression and information retrieval. Accordingly, the Rabin Karp Algorithm addresses this essential need by leveraging the hash function to expedite the search process. The algorithm dissects both pattern and text into smaller components, comparing each segment to the other. The resulting avoidance of direct character-by-character comparisons enhances the search for string patterns and time complexity.

The Rabin-Karp algorithm’s constant time comparison of patterns of varying sizes enables it to tackle complex string matching issues while maintaining linear complexity. Aside from that, it can accommodate multiple patterns or those with wildcards, making it a highly versatile tool in the field of string matching. The Rabin-Karp algorithm, knuth, is also used in cryptography, specifically in the field of modular arithmetic, where it is used to solve the modular equation x ≡ b (mod q).

## Properties of the Rabin Karp Algorithm

Developed by computer scientists Michael O. Rabin and Richard M. Karp in 1987, the Rabin Karp Algorithm is named to honor its creators. To apply this algorithm in various programming languages, you will need to incorporate specific syntax. This section provides an overview of essential properties of the Rabin-Karp Algorithm.

The algorithm simplifies the search by converting the text to a hash value. By comparing it to the hash value of the pattern being searched, it can detect a match in linear time. The Rabin-Karp Algorithm finds applications in plagiarism detection, bioinformatics, and text processing, making it a potent tool for resource-efficient pattern searches within texts. The algorithm is particularly useful for finding a string pattern within a large text document.

# Hash Function Properties in the Rabin Karp Algorithm

The hash function is vital for optimal performance of the Rabin-Karp Algorithm:

- Hash Collisions: Distinct strings should produce different hash values.
- Distributivity: Similar inputs do not cluster hash values.
- Ease of Computation: Computing hash values should be simple, efficient, and constant with respect to input length.

# Optimizing the Rabin Karp String Matching Algorithm

Here are several suggestions to improve the performance of the Rabin-Karp Algorithm:

- Carefully choose the prime number used in the hash function, considering the size and proximity of the text and pattern sizes.
- Utilize rolling hash functions to accelerate pattern search time and minimize the recomputation of hash values.
- Analyze and implement the hash function properties to optimize the algorithm, preventing inefficiencies and malfunctions.

# Rabin Karp Algorithm PseudoCode

```
function RabinKarpAlgorithm(pat, txt, q):
d = number of characters in the alphabet (e.g., 256 for extended ASCII)
patternLength = length(pat)
textLength = length(txt)
h = d^(patternLength - 1) % q
patHash = 0
txtHash = 0
// Calculate initial hash values for 'pat' and 'txt[0...patternLength-1]'
for i = 0 to patternLength - 1:
patHash = (d * patHash + pat[i]) % q
txtHash = (d * txtHash + txt[i]) % q
// Slide through the text
for s = 0 to textLength - patternLength:
// Check if hash values match and compare characters
if patHash == txtHash:
if pat == txt[s...s + patternLength - 1]:
"Pattern found at index" s
// Calculate hash value for next substring 'txt[s+1...s+patternLength]'
if s < textLength - patternLength:
txtHash = (d * (txtHash - txt[s] * h) + txt[s + patternLength]) % q
// In case of negative hash value, convert it to positive
if txtHash < 0:
txtHash = txtHash + q
```

Plaintext# Rabin Karp Algorithm Explained: Step-by-Step Explanation

To gain a deeper understanding of the Rabin-Karp Algorithm, let’s explore how it works with a step-by-step explanation.

**Step 1: Initialize hash values**

First, choose a prime number, q, that will be the base for the hashing process. Compute the hash values for the pattern being searched (denoted by pat) and a “window” (substring) of the source text (denoted by txt) of the same length as the modulus pattern.

**Step 2: Compare initial hash values**

Compare the computed hash value of the pattern (patHash) with the computed hash value of the initial substring in the text (txtHash). If the hash values match, perform a character-by-character comparison between the pattern and the initial substring to confirm a match using m-1.

**Step 3: Iterate through the text**

Iterate through the source text by sliding the “window” one character at a time. For each window, compute the new hash value for the current substring using the previous hash value and the next character in the text using the following formula:

`txtHash = (d * (txtHash - txt[s] * h) + txt[s + patternLength]) % q`

Here, d is the number of characters in the alphabet (e.g., 256 for extended ASCII), s represents the starting position of the current window, and h is equal to d^(patternLength – 1) integer.

**Step 4: Compare hash values for the new window**

Compare the newly computed `txtHash`

with `patHash`

. If the hash values are equal, perform a character-by-character comparison between the pattern and the current substring to confirm a match.

**Step 5: Record matches**

If a match is found, record the index of the starting point in the substring. This can be stored in a variable or printed as output, depending on the desired implementation.

**Step 6: Repeat until the end of the text**

Continue iterating through the text and repeating steps 3 to 5 for every window until the end of the text is reached. By the end of the process, all occurrences of the pattern in the text will have been identified, avoiding any spurious hit.

Please note that the Rabin-Karp Algorithm’s efficiency depends on a suitable choice of the prime number q, the hash function, int p, and a minimized risk of hash collisions. Implementing rolling hash functions can also improve pattern search time.

With this step-by-step explanation, you should now have a solid understanding of the inner workings of the Rabin-Karp Algorithm and how it can powerfully and efficiently search for patterns within a text.

# Implementing Rabin-Karp Algorithm in C, C++, Python, and Java

Below are code samples for implementing the Rabin-Karp Algorithm in C, C++, Python, and Java.

## Rabin Karp Algorithm In C:

```
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#define d 256
void search(char pat[], char txt[], int q) {
int patternLength = strlen(pat);
int textLength = strlen(txt);
int i, j;
int patHash = 0;
int txtHash = 0;
int h = 1;
for (i = 0; i < patternLength - 1; i++)
h = (h * d) % q;
for (i = 0; i < patternLength; i++) {
patHash = (d * patHash + pat[i]) % q;
txtHash = (d * txtHash + txt[i]) % q;
}
for (i = 0; i <= textLength - patternLength; i++) {
if (patHash == txtHash) {
for (j = 0; j < patternLength; j++) {
if (txt[i + j] != pat[j])
break;
}
if (j == patternLength)
printf("Pattern found at index %dn", i);
}
if (i < textLength - patternLength) {
txtHash = (d * (txtHash - txt[i] * h) + txt[i + patternLength]) % q;
if (txtHash < 0)
txtHash = txtHash + q;
}
}
}
```

C## Rabin Karp Algorithm C++:

```
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
#define d 256
void search(string pat, string txt, int q) {
int patternLength = pat.size();
int textLength = txt.size();
int i, j;
int patHash = 0;
int txtHash = 0;
int h = 1;
for (i = 0; i < patternLength - 1; i++)
h = (h * d) % q;
for (i = 0; i < patternLength; i++) {
patHash = (d * patHash + pat[i]) % q;
txtHash = (d * txtHash + txt[i]) % q;
}
for (i = 0; i <= textLength - patternLength; i++) {
if (patHash == txtHash) {
for (j = 0; j < patternLength; j++) {
if (txt[i + j] != pat[j])
break;
}
if (j == patternLength)
cout << "Pattern found at index " << i << endl;
}
if (i < textLength - patternLength) {
txtHash = (d * (txtHash - txt[i] * h) + txt[i + patternLength]) % q;
if (txtHash < 0)
txtHash = txtHash + q;
}
}
}
```

C++## Rabin Karp Algorithm Python:

```
def search(pat, txt, q):
patternLength = len(pat)
textLength = len(txt)
patHash = 0
txtHash = 0
h = 1
d = 256
for i in range(0, patternLength - 1):
h = (h * d) % q
for i in range(0, patternLength):
patHash = (d * patHash + ord(pat[i])) % q
txtHash = (d * txtHash + ord(txt[i])) % q
for i in range(0, textLength - patternLength + 1):
if patHash == txtHash:
j = 0
while j < patternLength and pat[j] == txt[i + j]:
j += 1
if j == patternLength:
print("Pattern found at index", i)
if i < textLength - patternLength:
txtHash = (d * (txtHash - ord(txt[i]) * h) + ord(txt[i + patternLength])) % q
if txtHash < 0:
txtHash = txtHash + q
```

Python## Rabin Karp Algorithm Java:

```
public class RabinKarp {
final static int d = 256;
public static void search(String pat, String txt, int q) {
int patternLength = pat.length();
int textLength = txt.length();
int i, j;
int patHash = 0;
int txtHash = 0;
int h = 1;
for (i = 0; i < patternLength - 1; i++)
h = (h * d) % q;
for (i = 0; i < patternLength; i++) {
patHash = (d * patHash + pat.charAt(i)) % q;
txtHash = (d * txtHash + txt.charAt(i)) % q;
}
for (i = 0; i <= textLength - patternLength; i++) {
if (patHash == txtHash) {
for (j = 0; j < patternLength; j++) {
if (txt.charAt(i + j) != pat.charAt(j))
break;
}
if (j == patternLength)
System.out.println("Pattern found at index " + i);
}
if (i < textLength - patternLength) {
txtHash = (d * (txtHash - txt.charAt(i) * h) + txt.charAt(i + patternLength)) % q;
if (txtHash < 0)
txtHash = txtHash + q;
}
}
}
}
```

Java# Rabin Karp Algorithm Time Complexity

The algorithm’s average and best-case running time is O(n + m), and C++, Java, and Python implementations exhibit similar complexities. To optimize performance, consider using rolling hash functions.

## What is the Rabin-Karp algorithm?

The Rabin-Karp algorithm is a string searching algorithm that finds a pattern within a larger text by comparing hash values. It was invented by Richard M. Karp and Michael O. Rabin in 1987.

## How does the Rabin-Karp algorithm work?

The Rabin-Karp algorithm works by calculating hash values for the pattern and each substring of the text. It then compares the hash values to determine if there is a match. If the hash values match, the algorithm performs a character-by-character comparison to confirm the match.

## What is the advantage of using the Rabin-Karp algorithm?

The Rabin-Karp algorithm has the advantage of being able to search for multiple patterns simultaneously. It also has a linear time complexity in the average case, making it efficient for searching in large amounts of text.

## What are the limitations of the Rabin-Karp algorithm?

The Rabin-Karp algorithm can have a high collision rate, leading to false positives. It also requires calculating hash values for each substring, which can be time-consuming. Additionally, it may not be as efficient as other algorithms, such as the Boyer-Moore algorithm, for certain types of patterns.

## Where is the Rabin-Karp algorithm used?

The Rabin-Karp algorithm is commonly used in fields such as plagiarism detection, DNA sequence matching, and spell-checking. It can be applied in any scenario where string searching is required.

# Final Thoughts

The Rabin-Karp Algorithm is a powerful approach to string searching, capable of identifying multiple patterns and providing efficient, simple solutions. By understanding its properties and optimizing its performance, developers can unlock its full potential for various applications across several programming languages.