C Programming Tutorial

Introduction

No matter how far technology progresses, the foundations always remain the most imperative. So whether you are a student, a careered officer or a self employed person, it is never too late to start and too wise to hit off with the basics first. Computer programming is not limited to any age, profile or knowledge but all it needs is the passion and love towards coding.

Now before we start, we need to clear a very obvious doubt that might arise while learning C Programming Language in today’s era.

I don’t know! Should I learn C Programming language?

In today’s world, considering the multitude of languages out there, shouldn’t programmers focus on learning just what advances them? Shouldn’t they just learn what interests them and use the finite amount of time in just moving forward? Well, to be honest, these are all the baseless questions. Striving for excellence in what you do is the fundamental deterministic trait between good programmers and bad ones and so, knowing the roots is crucial. Hence, the basic needs to learn C are as follows:

  • To have a clear and concise concept about pointers, datatypes, call by references, structures, etc..
  • High Level Languages are easily accessible and thus without a clear concept of functionality at low / mid levels, programmers often tend to mess up.
  • It is like a lingua franca of computer programming.
  • Has fewer libraries and a faster execution time with respect to other HLLs.

C helps us to understand the underlying architecture of how things work and make it easier for us to do the hard work.

A COMPLETE IDEA ABOUT C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

What is C Programming Language?

According to Wikepedia, C is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion, with a static type system that provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions.

But, in easier words, C Programming language is a middle level structured procedural language used for general purpose programming as well as to develop complex system softwares. It was developed by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T’s Bell laboratories in 1972.

First of all, let us start by understanding some of the basic terms related to C.

Understanding C Programming Language

  • Procedural programming language: A language that follows well-organized architecture by specifying all the steps that the computer must take to obtain the desired output.
  • Middle Level Language: A machine-friendly language but not too complex for humans and also allowing  arithmetic operations, program efficiency, and simplicity in coding.

Why C? Why should beginners learn the C Programming Language?

Frankly, C is one of the most basic languages and almost most of the High Level Languages are derived from C. Hence, other programming languages inherited their features from C and thus learning C Programming Language makes it easier to learn the advanced languages like Ruby, Python, PHP, C++, JAVA, Lua,etc..

Also, C is a very specific, convenient and versatile programming language. The C compiler supports both assembly language features and high-level language and hence, it is best suitable for writing both system applications and most of the business packages.

Hence, we can infer that the main strength of C is its capability of being functional on any computer architecture along with great flexibility and reliability. Moreover, the vast library functions pre-defined in C makes it an optimal choice for programming. Although assembly language has extremely powerful programs, it proves it be of great inconvenience when it comes to creating large applications.

Features of C Programming Language

  • Portable
  • Structured
  • Simple and efficient
  • Speed
  • Extensively used
  • Collection of Libraries
  • Dynamic Memory Allocation
  • Case Sensitive

Practical: How to write the simplest code in C Programming Language?

				
					#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
    printf("Hello World!");
    return 0;
}

// OUTPUT: Hello World!
				
			

Understanding the Code:

#include – It includes a preprocessor command. the header file for standard input and output. This is useful for getting the input from the user(Keyboard) and output result text to the monitor(screen).

int main() – A “main” function that returns an integer value to determine the end of execution of the code.

printf() – It sends the formatted output to the screen i.e, prints the output.

return 0 – This statement shows the end status, that is, the function returns whatever argument passed in return. Here, 0 is passed as the return value which means successful execution of the program.

{} – Defines the executable regions.

 

Basic structure of C Programming Language

  1. Documentation Section

The section where the programmer can give associated details (comments) to make the program more interactive to all. These comments are not compiled by the compiler and hence not displayed as output.

2. Preprocessor directives Section

This section involves the use of header files that are to be included to make the program be able to access system libraries.

3. Definition section

This section involves the variable definition and declaration in C.

4. Global declaration Section

This section is used to define the global variables to be used in the programs, that means you can use these variables throughout the program.

5. Function prototype declaration section

This section gives the information about a function – the data type, the return type and the parameters passed as arguments.

6. Main function

It is the major section from where the execution of the program begins. The main section involves the declaration and executable section.

7. User-defined function section

A section where the programmer defines their own functions to fulfill specific requirements.

Basic Rules to keep in mind while coding in C Programming Language

  • It is case sensitive.
  • “;”(semicolon) is a must to end a line of code
  • Variables need to be declared beforehand
  • Array elements start from element 0
  • “main” function must be implemented to define the executable part of the code
  • Preprocessor directives should be included

 

Where to start with C Programming Language?

C has a multitude of concepts ranging from variables, functions, operators, scope to dynamic memory allocations, structures, etc.. As vast as it already is, without a proper guideline, it can get very messy too. Hence to master each and everyone, we need to have a proper roadmap and take slow and steady steps.

  • Youtube: Since YouTube is free and it’s AV, it is a great place to grab basics.
  • Online Courses: For more sophisticated and detailed dive into the concepts. Also, a completion certificate doesn’t hurt.
  •  Choose a preferred compiler.
  • Books: As C Programming Language is one of the oldest languages, a lot of material is available covering every aspect of it.
  • Patience, Practice, Progress.
  • Project: Start off slow and gradually take up big projects on your own.

Understanding the Code:

#include – It includes a preprocessor command. the header file for standard input and output. This is useful for getting the input from the user(Keyboard) and output result text to the monitor(screen).

int main() – A “main” function that returns an integer value to determine the end of execution of the code.

printf() – It sends the formatted output to the screen i.e, prints the output.

return 0 – This statement shows the end status, that is, the function returns whatever argument passed in return. Here, 0 is passed as the return value which means successful execution of the program.

{} – Defines the executable regions.


Basic structure of C Programming Language

  1. Documentation Section

The section where the programmer can give associated details (comments) to make the program more interactive to all. These comments are not compiled by the compiler and hence not displayed as output.

2. Preprocessor directives Section

This section involves the use of header files that are to be included to make the program be able to access system libraries.

3. Definition section

This section involves the variable definition and declaration in C.

4. Global declaration Section

This section is used to define the global variables to be used in the programs, that means you can use these variables throughout the program.

5. Function prototype declaration section

This section gives the information about a function – the data type, the return type and the parameters passed as arguments.

6. Main function

It is the major section from where the execution of the program begins. The main section involves the declaration and executable section.

7. User-defined function section

A section where the programmer defines their own functions to fulfill specific requirements.

Basic Rules to keep in mind while coding in C Programming Language

  • It is case sensitive.
  • “;”(semicolon) is a must to end a line of code
  • Variables need to be declared beforehand
  • Array elements start from element 0
  • “main” function must be implemented to define the executable part of the code
  • Preprocessor directives should be included


Where to start with C Programming Language?

C has a multitude of concepts ranging from variables, functions, operators, scope to dynamic memory allocations, structures, etc.. As vast as it already is, without a proper guideline, it can get very messy too. Hence to master each and everyone, we need to have a proper roadmap and take slow and steady steps.

  • Youtube: Since YouTube is free and it’s AV, it is a great place to grab basics.
  • Online Courses: For more sophisticated and detailed dive into the concepts. Also, a completion certificate doesn’t hurt.
  •  Choose a preferred compiler.
  • Books: As C Programming Language is one of the oldest languages, a lot of material is available covering every aspect of it.
  • Patience, Practice, Progress.
  • Project: Start off slow and gradually take up big projects on your own.

Introduction

No matter how far technology progresses, the foundations always remain the most imperative. So whether you are a student, a careered officer or a self employed person, it is never too late to start and too wise to hit off with the basics first. Computer programming is not limited to any age, profile or knowledge but all it needs is the passion and love towards coding.

Now before we start, we need to clear a very obvious doubt that might arise while learning C Programming Language in today’s era.

I don’t know! Should I learn C Programming language?

In today’s world, considering the multitude of languages out there, shouldn’t programmers focus on learning just what advances them? Shouldn’t they just learn what interests them and use the finite amount of time in just moving forward? Well, to be honest, these are all the baseless questions. Striving for excellence in what you do is the fundamental deterministic trait between good programmers and bad ones and so, knowing the roots is crucial. Hence, the basic needs to learn C are as follows:

  • To have a clear and concise concept about pointers, datatypes, call by references, structures, etc..
  • High Level Languages are easily accessible and thus without a clear concept of functionality at low / mid levels, programmers often tend to mess up.
  • It is like a lingua franca of computer programming.
  • Has fewer libraries and a faster execution time with respect to other HLLs.

C helps us to understand the underlying architecture of how things work and make it easier for us to do the hard work.

A COMPLETE IDEA ABOUT C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

What is C Programming Language?

According to Wikepedia, C is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion, with a static type system that provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions.

But, in easier words, C Programming language is a middle level structured procedural language used for general purpose programming as well as to develop complex system softwares. It was developed by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T’s Bell laboratories in 1972.

First of all, let us start by understanding some of the basic terms related to C.

Understanding C Programming Language

  • Procedural programming language: A language that follows well-organized architecture by specifying all the steps that the computer must take to obtain the desired output.
  • Middle Level Language: A machine-friendly language but not too complex for humans and also allowing  arithmetic operations, program efficiency, and simplicity in coding.

Why C? Why should beginners learn the C Programming Language?

Frankly, C is one of the most basic languages and almost most of the High Level Languages are derived from C. Hence, other programming languages inherited their features from C and thus learning C Programming Language makes it easier to learn the advanced languages like Ruby, Python, PHP, C++, JAVA, Lua,etc..

Also, C is a very specific, convenient and versatile programming language. The C compiler supports both assembly language features and high-level language and hence, it is best suitable for writing both system applications and most of the business packages.

Hence, we can infer that the main strength of C is its capability of being functional on any computer architecture along with great flexibility and reliability. Moreover, the vast library functions pre-defined in C makes it an optimal choice for programming. Although assembly language has extremely powerful programs, it proves it be of great inconvenience when it comes to creating large applications.

Features of C Programming Language

  • Portable
  • Structured
  • Simple and efficient
  • Speed
  • Extensively used
  • Collection of Libraries
  • Dynamic Memory Allocation
  • Case Sensitive

Practical: How to write the simplest code in C Programming Language?

				
					#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
    printf("Hello World!");
    return 0;
}

// OUTPUT: Hello World!
				
			

Understanding the Code:

#include – It includes a preprocessor command. the header file for standard input and output. This is useful for getting the input from the user(Keyboard) and output result text to the monitor(screen).

int main() – A “main” function that returns an integer value to determine the end of execution of the code.

printf() – It sends the formatted output to the screen i.e, prints the output.

return 0 – This statement shows the end status, that is, the function returns whatever argument passed in return. Here, 0 is passed as the return value which means successful execution of the program.

{} – Defines the executable regions.

Basic structure of C Programming Language

  1. Documentation Section

The section where the programmer can give associated details (comments) to make the program more interactive to all. These comments are not compiled by the compiler and hence not displayed as output.

2. Preprocessor directives Section

This section involves the use of header files that are to be included to make the program be able to access system libraries.

3. Definition section

This section involves the variable definition and declaration in C.

4. Global declaration Section

This section is used to define the global variables to be used in the programs, that means you can use these variables throughout the program.

5. Function prototype declaration section

This section gives the information about a function – the data type, the return type and the parameters passed as arguments.

6. Main function

It is the major section from where the execution of the program begins. The main section involves the declaration and executable section.

7. User-defined function section

A section where the programmer defines their own functions to fulfill specific requirements.

Basic Rules to keep in mind while coding in C Programming Language

  • It is case sensitive.
  • “;”(semicolon) is a must to end a line of code
  • Variables need to be declared beforehand
  • Array elements start from element 0
  • “main” function must be implemented to define the executable part of the code
  • Preprocessor directives should be included

Where to start with C Programming Language?

C has a multitude of concepts ranging from variables, functions, operators, scope to dynamic memory allocations, structures, etc.. As vast as it already is, without a proper guideline, it can get very messy too. Hence to master each and everyone, we need to have a proper roadmap and take slow and steady steps.

  • Youtube: Since YouTube is free and it’s AV, it is a great place to grab basics.
  • Online Courses: For more sophisticated and detailed dive into the concepts. Also, a completion certificate doesn’t hurt.
  •  Choose a preferred compiler.
  • Books: As C Programming Language is one of the oldest languages, a lot of material is available covering every aspect of it.
  • Patience, Practice, Progress.
  • Project: Start off slow and gradually take up big projects on your own.

harshit